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Table 1 The proposed typology for capturing COPD phenotypes

From: Supporting the annotation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes with text mining workflows

Type Description Example(s)
1) Problem an overall category for any COPD indications of concern frequent exacerbator
a) MedicalCondition* any disease or medical condition; includes COPD comorbidities emphysema, pulmonary vascular disease, asthma, congestive heart failure
b) RiskFactor* a phenotype signifying a patient’s increased chances of having COPD increased levels of the c-reactive protein, alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency
i) SignOrSymptom* an observable irregularity manifested by a COPD patient chronic cough, shortness of breath, purulent sputum production
ii) IndividualBehaviour* a patient’s habits leading to susceptibility of having COPD smoking for 25 years
iii) TestOrMeasureResult* findings based on COPD-relevant examinations increased white blood cell counts, FEV1 45% predicted
2) Treatment any medication, therapy or program for treating COPD oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, pursed lips breathing
3) TestOrMeasure an overall category for any COPD-relevant examinations or measures/parameters increased compliance of the lung, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio
a) RadiologicalTest any of the radiological tests for detecting COPD computed tomography scanning, high resolution computed tomography
b) MicrobiologicalTest an examination of a COPD- relevant specimen complete blood count
c) PhysiologicalTest a measurement of a COPD patient’s capacity to exercise 6-min walking distance
  1. Types marked with an asterisk (*) were adapted from the PhenoCHF scheme.