Independent component analysis of phenotypes illustrates relationship between E-PSI and cost. Independent Component Analysis was performed using all five severity measures and E-PSI. Phenotypes are colored by increasing E-PSI score (higher score denoted by light blue, lower score denoted by dark navy). The size indicates cost (large size indicates high cost). Phenotypes with higher E-PSI seem to be more severe; for example, ‘complication of transplanted heart’, a severe phenotype, had a high E-PSI score (and high cost). However, phenotype cost is not directly related to the E-PSI score.