Differences in severity measures and e-psi for mild vs. severe phenotypes. The distribution of each of the 6 measures used in CAESAR is shown for severe and mild phenotypes. Severity assignments were from our reference standard. Using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, we found statistically significant differences between severe and mild phenotypes across all 6 measures (p < 0.001). Severe phenotypes (dark red) having higher values for each of the six measures than mild phenotypes. The least dramatic differences were observed for cost and number of comorbidities while the most dramatic difference was for the number of medications.