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Table 12 Recommendation regarding the generalizability of results

From: Natural language processing algorithms for mapping clinical text fragments onto ontology concepts: a systematic review and recommendations for future studies

1. Compare the results of the evaluated algorithm with other algorithms by using the same dataset as reported in the publication of the other algorithm or by processing the same dataset with another algorithm available through the literature. Report the outcomes of both experiments and test for statistical significance.
2. Describe in what setting the research is performed. Include if the research is part of a challenge (e.g., i2b2 challenge), or that the research is carried out in a specific institute or department.
3. Before claiming generalizability, perform external validation by testing the algorithm on a different, external dataset from other research projects or other publicly available datasets. Aim to use a dataset with a different case mix, different individuals, and different types of text.
4. Determine and describe if there are potential sources of bias in data selection, data use by the NLP algorithm or system, and evaluation.
5. When claiming generalizability, clearly describe the conditions under which the algorithm can be used in a different setting. Describe for which population, domain, and type and language of data the algorithm can be used.