Citation distortion: Graph of a claim network from Greenberg 2009  showing citation distortion. The claim presented in this lineage states that amyloid beta deposition in IBM muscle fibers precedes other pathological changes – from which can be inferred that it is the causative factor. The foundational publications, which would be expected to contain supporting data, do not. Needham and Massaglia’s article from Lancet Neurology provides no support at all for Claim C11 at all, treating it as a pure fact. In the Claim network, we assert C11 as a Holotype, or representative Statement, for C12. In fact, that assertion could be made for all Claims in the network.