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Table 3 Observed knowledge representation issues

From: Comparative analysis of knowledge representation and reasoning requirements across a range of life sciences textbooks

Category of KR issue Occurs in textbooks Occurs in Campbell? New issue?
Levine Raven Alberts Kandel
Negative information   x x x x No
Spatial relation x x x x x No
Missing slot (other than spatial relation)   x x x x No
Inability to state graded quantifiers x x x   x No
Biological models and reified statements x x x x x No
Property-value comparison   x    x No
Causation    x   x No
Disjunction x   x   x No
Conditionality    x   x No
Possibility    x   x No
Data interpretation    x x   Yes
Science as a process    x x x No
Qualitative number constraint   x    x No
Mathematical reasoning     x x No
Vagueness/ambiguity   x x x x No
Other   x    x No