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Table 8 Six possibilities for a diagnosis failing in aboutness on the level of compound expressions

From: Diagnosis, misdiagnosis, lucky guess, hearsay, and more: an ontological analysis

Problem Where it fails first Description
Noninstantation, asserted type exists Level of compound expression Disease instantiates a different type than the stated type, but the stated type exists
Noninstantation, asserted type does not exist Level of reference Disease instantiates a different type than stated, while the stated type of disease does not exist
Disease nonexistence Level of reference The disease instance does not exist
Organism nonexistence Level of reference The organism instance does not exist. In this case, there could not be a clinical picture properly inferred and thus it is not a misdiagnosis although it could still be an ICE.
Disease non-inherence Level of compound expression The disease inheres in a different organism than the one stated. For example, the doctor mistakenly ascribes Mr. Johnson’s hypertension to his twin.
Configuration is not located in that part of spacetime where the diagnosis says it is located. Level of compound expression A diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus 5 years ago is wrong because the patient didn’t have the disease at that time, even though the patient has type 2 diabetes today. Also, a diagnosis that the patient has an upper respiratory tract infection today when in reality the infection resolved two weeks ago.