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Table 1 The axiom patterns in Manchester OWL Syntax for populating the main classes of the two core ontologies: the extended lemon core ontology (lemonEXT); and the modified OBAN core ontology (OBAMmod). Each axiom pattern in the second column contains variables, which can be easily identified as they start with the character “?”. The third column exemplifies OWL individuals that are the result of populating the axiom patterns introduced in the second column

From: Exploring semantic deep learning for building reliable and reusable one health knowledge from PubMed systematic reviews and veterinary clinical notes

Brief description of axiom pattern

Axiom pattern in

Manchester OWL Syntax

Example of populating the Axiom pattern in

Manchester OWL Syntax

Individual of the OWL class lemon:LexicalTopic

Individual:? x

 Annotations: label? lbx@en

 Types: ‘Lexical topic’

Individual: heart_failure

 Annotations: label “heart_failure”@en

 Types: ‘Lexical topic’

Individual of the OWL class lemon:LexicalEntry

Individual:? y

 Annotations: label? lby@en

 Types: ‘Lexical entry’

 Facts: denotes? CUI

Individual: beta-blockers

 Annotations: label “beta-blockers”@en

 Types: ‘Lexical entry’

 Facts: denotes ‘Adrenergic beta-Antagonists’

Individual of the OWL class lemon:Lexicon

Individual:? z

 Annotations: label? lbz@en

 Types: Lexicon


   ‘correlated with’? dataset,

   ‘correlated with’? model,

entry? y1,

… … …

entry? y20

Individual: PMSB_CBOW_heart_failure

 Annotations: label “PMSB_CBOW_heart_failure”@en

 Types: Lexicon


  'correlated with’ ‘PMSB dataset’,

  'correlated with’ CBOW,

  entry beta-blockers,

… … …

entry ‘cardiac_resynchronization_therapy_(CRT)’

Individual of the OWL class oban:association

Individual:? Cpair

 Annotations: rdfs:label? lbCpair@en

 Types: association


  oban:association_has_object? CUI1,

  oban:association_has_subject? CUI2

Individual: ‘(C0017601,C0020581)’

 Annotations: label “(C0017601,C0020581)”@en

 Types: association


  'association has object’ Hyphema,

  'association has subject’ Glaucoma

Individual of the OWL class oban: provenance

Individual:? ECpair

 Annotations: rdfs:label? lbECpair@en

 Types: provenance


  'has source’? BMJdoc,

  'has excerpt’? BMJterm,

  'has evidence’? lbEvidence,

  'has excerpt’? EEexcerpt,

  'is about’? Cpair,

  'date creation association’? d1^^string,

 'source date issued’? d2^^string

Individual: ‘(C0017601,C0020581,Relatedness by inexact match (background knowledge))’


  label “(C0017601,C0020581,Relatedness by inexact match (background knowledge))”@en

 Types: provenance


  'has source’ ‘BMJ Best Practice: Open-angle glaucoma’,

  'has excerpt’ trabeculotomy,

  'has evidence’ ‘Relatedness by inexact match (background knowledge)’,

  'has excerpt’ EEexcerpt_70,

  'is about’ ‘(C0017601,C0020581)’,

  'date creation association’ “May-2018″^^string,

  'source date issued’ “09-Dec-2016″^^string